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RADIOLOGY TERMINOLOGY

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ibuprofen - A non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) available over-the-counter. -

image-guided biopsy - The use of imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, mammography or MRI, to assist in targeting a lesion too small to be felt so that cells can be removed from the suspicious area and examined under a microscope to determine whether the abnormality is cancerous.

image Guided Radiation Therapy or IGRT - A radiation treatment guided by imaging equipment, such as CT, ultrasound or X-rays, taken in the treatment room just before radiation is given. During IGRT, the images are used as a final check to ensure accurate placement of the radiation treatment.

image recording plate - Part of an electronic detector used in a digital imaging system. An x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image either on photographic film or, in a digital system, on the image recording plate of an electronic detector, a device that converts the x-rays into digital signals which are in turn sent to a computer to produce images.

immobilization Device - A device that is used to help a patient remain in the same position during every treatment. -

immunotherapy - Also called biologic therapy, immunotherapy works with your immune system to fight cancer. -

immunotherapy - The practice of giving small amounts of an allergy-producing substance in order to stimulate the formation of antibody that will neutralize it., Use of the body's immune system to fight tumors.,

implant - (im-plant) - To graft or insert., Material inserted or grafted into tissues. , In dentistry, a graft or insert set in or onto the tooth socket prepared for its insertion., In orthopedics, a metallic or plastic device employed in joint reconstruction.,

implant or Brachytherapy - Internal radiation therapy that involves placing radioactive sources inside or adjacent to the tumor. -

implanted cardiac defibrillator (ICD) - See defibrillator. -

implanted port - A catheter connected to a quarter-sized disk that is surgically placed just below the skin in the chest or abdomen. The tube is inserted into a large vein or artery directly into the bloodstream. Fluids, drugs, or blood products can be infused or blood drawn through a needle that is stuck into the disk. Examples of manufacturer's names: Port-o-cath, Infusaport, Lifeport.

impotence - Inability of the male to maintain erection and engage in sexual intercourse. -

in situ breast cancer - The early stage of cancer when it is confined to the ducts of the breast where it began and has not invaded the surrounding fatty tissues. -

incentive spirometer - A breathing apparatus that helps patients inflate their lungs and exercise breathing muscles to prevent the onset of pneumonia following surgery. -

incisional biopsy - A type of surgical biopsy in which part of a lesion or abnormal group of cells is removed. -

incontinence - Inability to prevent the discharge of urine or feces. -

inferior vena cava - The large vein that returns blood from the legs and abdomen to the heart. -

inferior vena cava (IVC) filter - A device that is implanted in the inferior vena cava, the large vein that returns blood from the legs to the heart, to prevent blood clots in the lower body from traveling to the heart or lungs. -

inflammation - The protective response of body tissues to irritation or injury. Signs include redness, heat, swelling and pain. -

infusaport - Manufacturer's name. See implanted port. -

infusion - Introduction of a fluid, nutrient, or medication directly into a vein by means of gravity flow. -

infusion catheter - A catheter connected to an implanted port (a quarter-sized disk that is surgically placed just below the skin in the chest or abdomen). The tube is inserted into a large vein or artery directly into the bloodstream. Fluids, drugs, or blood products can be infused or blood drawn through a needle that is stuck into the disk. Examples of manufacturer's names: Port-o-cath, Infusaport, Lifeport.

institutional Review Board - Also known as anindependent ethics committee(IEC) orethical review board(ERB), a committeethat has been formally designated to approve, monitor and reviewbiomedicalandbehavioralresearchinvolvinghumanswith the aim to protect the rights and welfare of theparticipants in the study. -

institutional review board - A review body established to protect the welfare of human participants recruited for biomedical research. -

intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy or IMRT - IMRT is a specialized form of external beam therapy that can help improve how the radiation is shaped to fit your tumor. -

internal jugular vein - One of a pair of neck veins that collect blood from the brain and face and convey it toward the heart. -

internal Radiation Therapy - A procedure in which radioactive material sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters is placed directly into or near a tumor. Also called brachytherapy, implant radiation, or interstitial radiation therapy. -

internal radiation therapy - See brachytherapy. -

internist - A physician specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the internal organs. -

interstitial Brachytherapy - A form of seed implant where radioactive sources are placed directly into the tumor (such as the prostate). -

interstitial lung disease - A respiratory disorder causing shortness of breath on effort. In time the lung tissue may become severely scarred. While some patients recover, others develop respiratory failure or heart failure. -

interventional radiologist - A radiologist who specializes in the use of fluoroscopy, CT, and ultrasound to guide passage through the skin by needle puncture, including introduction of wires and catheters for performing procedures such as biopsies, draining fluids, inserting catheters, or dilating or stenting narrowed ducts or vessels. -

interventional radiology - The clinical subspecialty that uses fluoroscopy, CT, and ultrasound to guide percutaneous (through the skin) procedures such as performing biopsies, draining fluids, inserting catheters, or dilating or stenting narrowed ducts or vessels. -

intervertebral disks - Disk-shaped pads of fibrous tissue that are interposed between the vertebrae.

intracavitary Brachytherapy - A type of brachytherapy where the radioactive sources are placed into a space where the tumor is located, such as the cervix or windpipe. -

intracranial - Within the skull. -

intracranial aneurysm - (in-tra-krA-nE-al an-yU-ri-zim) - A ballooning out of the wall of an artery inside the brain; it may lead the vessel to rupture and bleed heavily.-

intractable ascites - A condition in which excess fluid continually builds up in the abdominal or peritoneal cavity despite appropriate medical therapy. -

intraoperative - During surgery. -

intraoperative cryotherapy - Cryotherapy is a minimally invasive treatment that uses extreme cold to freeze and destroy diseased tissue, including cancer cells. In an intraoperative cryotherapy procedure, tissue inside the body is treated by inserting a cryoprobe or a series of small needles through the skin and delivering liquid nitrogen or argon gas to the site of the diseased tissue. -

intraoperative Radiation Therapy or IORT - Radiation therapy given during surgery. It is helpful when vital normal organs are too close to the tumor because it allows your radiation oncologist to avoid exposing those organs to radiation. This form of radiation therapy can be given as external beam therapy or as brachytherapy. It is currently being studied for breast cancer. -

intraosseous - Situated within, occurring within, or administered by entering a bone. -

intraosseous venography - A procedure in which an x-ray, or venogram, is taken of a bone after a special dye is injected into bone marrow, the soft substance that fills the hollow center of most bones.

intraperitoneal therapy - A minimally invasive procedure in which anti-cancer drugs are delivered into the peritoneal cavity through a catheter connected to a peritoneal port, a small reservoir or chamber surgically implanted under the skin near the abdomen.

intrauterine - (in-tra-yU-terin) - Within the uterus. -

intravenous ('inside a vein') - Frequently a needle will be placed in a vein, often a large arm vein, to deliver fluids and medications, withdraw blood samples, and transfuse blood. -

intravenous pyelography (IVP) - Radiography of kidneys, ureters, and bladder following injection of contrast medium into a peripheral vein. For details see the Intravenous Pyelogram page. -

invasive - (in-vA-siv) - An invasive procedure is typically an "open" operation, such as appendectomy, which requires a surgical incision for exposure of deep structures or organs for performance of an intervention.

invasive breast cancer - Cancer that has spread beyond the layer of tissue in which it first developed and is growing into surrounding, healthy tissues. -

inverted -Y Field Radiation - Treatment below the diaphragm to the abdomen, spleen and/or pelvis.

involved Field Radiation - This is when your doctor delivers radiation only to the parts of your body known to have disease. -

iodine - A non-metallic element found in table salt, seawater and in plants and animals that grow in the sea. The human body requires small amounts of iodine for healthy growth and development.

ionizing radiation - Radiation of sufficient energy to dissociate atoms or molecules into electrically charged atoms or radicals in the irradiated material. -

irradiation - (i-rA-dE-A-shun) - The subjective enlargement of a bright object seen against a dark background. , Exposure to the action of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., heat, light, x-rays).,

irritable bowel syndrome - Characterized by abdominal pain and altered bowel function - alternating bouts of constipation and diarrhea.

isocenter - The single point in space where a linear accelerator's beam is aimed regardless of the orientation of the machine. -

isotope - (I-sO-tOp) - One of two or more nuclides that are chemically identical, having the same number of protons, yet differ in mass number, since their nuclei contain different numbers of neutrons; individual isotopes are named with the inclusion of their mass number in the superior position (12C) and the atomic number (nuclear protons) in the inferior position (6C). In former usage, the mass numbers follow the chemical symbol (C-12). -

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